To protect job applicants against discrimination, the ADA prohibits requiring a medical exam prior to extending a job offer. However, employers are allowed to ask prospective employees to take a medical exam after a conditional job offer is made, as long as they require all applicants for the same job to undergo the same exam. Employers can also ask job applicants to describe, or demonstrate, how they would perform specific job functions prior to extending an offer.
Pre-employment examinations may include physical exams as well as health inquiries including drug and alcohol tests, psychological tests, and physical or mental health assessments. A physical examination can be required by a company for new hires if all other candidates for the same job category were also required to have an examination.